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Special thanks to

The Indomitable Satoshi Nakamoto.

Acknowledgements: Paddy Cerri, Hugo Feiler, Barnaby Girling, Adam Feiler, The Minima Team.


[1] Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Satoshi Nakamoto.

[2] Peter Todd: Making UTXO set growth irrelevant with low latency delayed TXO commitments.

[3] DAGCoin: A cryptocurrency without blocks.

[4] Mini Blockchain:

[5] Gregory Maxwell:

[6] Vitalik Buterin:

[7] Secure High Rate Transaction Processing in Bitcoin:

[8] IOTA:

[9] Adam Back, HashCash:

[10] P2Pool:

[11] GMSS signature scheme:

[12] Eltoo:

[13] Merkle Signature Scheme:

[14] Channel Factories:

[15] Liveliness:

[16] Decentralized Energy:


[18] Ethereum :

[19] Proof of Proof of Work :